«3^ oio culteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie ET SERIE RESEARCH MEMORANDA Promoting Small Scale and Cottage Industries in Indonesia An ...»
culteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie
SERIE RESEARCH MEMORANDA
Promoting Small Scale and Cottage Industries in Indonesia
An Impact Analysis for Central Java
Research Memorandum 1994-10
vrije Universiteit amsterdam
Promoting Small Scale and Cottage Industries in Indonesia
An Impact Analysis for Central Java
Piet Rietveld* Hendrawan Supratikno** Prapto Yuwono** March 1994 Revised Draft * Vrye Universiteit Amsterdam ** Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga This paper is based on research carried out during November 1992 - April 1993 in the context of the Sectoral Employment Planning and Policy Project (INS/90/035). We are very greatful for assistance to Dr Ozay Mehmet (Chief Technical Adviser of INS/90/035) and the Indonesian Ministry of Industry and its regional - and regency offices for their support during the execution of the research.
Acknowledgements : Daniel Kameo, Hari Sunarto, Gatot Sasongko, Johnson Dongoran, Wiratmo, and Arthur van Schaik participated in the field research and data analysis. Youdi Schipper and Niels Vlaanderen were responsible for data processing. Comments of two anonymous referees, Dr Hal Hill, and Drs. Henny Romijn were useful to improve an earlier version of the paper.
/, '•'-.-, \ This paper reviews the promotion of small scale and cottage industries (SSCI) in Indonesia with particular reference the employment creation. The review is carried out for the province of Central Java, which is the 'heartland' of SSCI employment. Participation rates in technical and financial assistance programmes are low. The programmes may continue for many, y,ears before a majority of the SSCI producers will be reached. A field survey was. êxecuted to gain insight into the effectiveness of current assistance programmes to enhance the develbpment of SSCI. The analysis highlights that there is little sign of a positive impact of programmes on employment in the less dynamic clusters. In the very dynamic clusters it was found that firms which made use of a combination of technical and financial assistance were most successful in terms of employment generation. Finally, the field works provides indications that present assistance programmes are not a 'cause' of employment growth in SSCI but that they are principally accommodating such growth.
ET Introduction The Indonesian govemment has long recognized the importance of small scale and cottage industries (SSCI) in economie development. A number of policies and programmes have been formulated to assist SSCIs play their potential role in promoting welfare through employment creation and economie growth. A main agent in the promotion of SSCI is the Ministry of Industry, in particular the Direktorat Jenderal Industri Kecil (Directorate General of Small Industries). lts technical assistance can be roughly divided into direct guidance of small firms and activities aimed at linking SSCI to large private and govenunent enterprises. Financial assistance is the responsibility of the Ministry of Industry, but it is executed by the banking system under the supervision of Bank Indonesia. Other Ministries have policies and programmes which aim at the promotion of small scale enterprises in general. Finally, there are numerous NGO's active in the field of small industry promotion.
The aim of this paper is to review the impact of promotion on the development of small scale industries, with particular reference to productive employment creation. The Indonesian economy will continue for the foreseeable future to face an ongoing major challenge to create significant numbers of jobs for the new entrants into the labour market. The Indonesian govenunent gives high priority to employment creation policies and programmes. The review is carried out for the province of Central Java, which can be characterized as the 'heartland' of small scale industrial employment in Indonesia. The impact will be assessed at two different levels. Firstly, an attempt is made to calculate the participation rates of the various distinct stimulation programmes. This provides insight into the percentage of small scale firms which have received technical and/or financial assistance. Our conclusion will be that participation rates are low, and the programmes are so far only reaching a minority of SSCI in a direct way. Secondly, fieldwork was executed in sentra industri ( clusters of SSCI ) in Central Java. The focus was on both an inventory of interventions that have taken place in selected sentra throughout the years, as well as an assessment of impact of interventions on firm development and employment. Our comparison between participants and non - participants will show that the combination of technical assistance and credit appears more successful than either alone. Moreover assistance is most effective in supporting dynamic firms. This raises questions concerning the effectiveness of current policy instruments to reach the poor.
The Role of Small Industry in Developing Countries It is generally acknowledged that SSCI are characterized by relatively high labour inputs per unit of output. SSCI has consequently been identified as a key sector for employment creation. In order to produce a given amount of products, employment effects will be larger when production is by SSCI compared with large scale industry. Many developing countries, and Indonesia is clear example, have an abundant supply of labour compared with capital, and development of labour-intensive technologies and SSCI may in many cases lead to an efficiënt use of scarce resources (Poot et al.
1990). SSCI also deserves special attention because it provides an additional source of income to a substantial part of the labour force from low income households (Rietveld and Gorter 1990). Thus, incomes and employment created in SSCI play a special role because of equitv considerations.
Especially in rural areas SSCI provide jobs and income for low income households with limited access to agricultural income generating opportunities. Rural SSCI are an important starting point for policies to counter povertv. In addition to employment and equity, another reason why SSCI deserve special attention is that they contribute to a favourable development of the balance of payments. They have the potential to contribute to exports, and the induced imports of intermediate products are modest (Thee 1992). Increased labour intensity in industry can be promoted without much concern for scale. Macro policies which are scale-neutral may significantly contribute to the allocation of resources toward labour-intensive industries among which competitive SSCI (Little et al. 1988). In the majority of countries, however, policies are biased towards larger industries, and this may be considered a justification for the existence of direct SSCI assistance programmes.
Insight into Üie diversity of SSCI is important for policy purposes because prospects and bottlenecks to enterprise growth and employment creation vary widely between distinct manufacturing subsectors (Schmitz 1982). Opportunities for the deveiopment of SSCI depend on either strengthening the enterprises' position in given production-distribution systems, or enhancing its competitive strength within the subsector (Gamser 1992). In Indonesia a number of SSCI subsectors have been strongly hit by the deveiopment of large scale industry. In several cases large scale (often 'modern') industry has been able to make products which are either cheaper or of superior quality compared with SSCI. Examples include textiles (woven), food processing (rice milis), foodstuffs, beverages, footwear and household utensils. Nevertheless there are also many examples where SSCI have been able to compete successfuUy with large industry (cf. Rietveld 1988). Recent discussions have stimulated attention for SSCI located in clusters, which can be defined as groupings of small enterprises producing similar output (Schmitz 1989). Clustered enterprise may allow SSCI to reach levels of economies of scale which are unreachable for individual enterprises, and it may also make possible product - and process innovations which exceed the technical and financial capacities of individual firms. The geographical proximity of similar enterprises offers opportunities for interfirm linkages, cooperation, and agglomeration efficiencies (Schmitz, 1989; Nadvi and Schmitz 1994). Clustering is a salient feature of SSCI in Indonesia in both urban and rural areas, particularly in Java, and attention for clustered industrial enterprise (locally referred to as sentra industri) is prominent in policies and programmes. Our field research was carried out in 6 clusters.
Employment in Small Scale and Cottage Industries in Central Java Assessments of industrial employment trends in Indonesia are frequently hampered by the paucity and inconsistency of data l. The Ministry of Industry defines SSCI differently from the Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics). The most recent definition of the Ministry of Industry, effective since 1990, defines small and cottage industries as enterprises to be owned by an Indonesian citizen with a total asset value that does not exceed Rp. 600 million, excluding the value for housing and land occupied by the plant. This new definition was simultaneously introduced with a new credit scheme for small businesses in Indonesia (not limited to industrial enterprises) Kredit Usaha Kecil (Small Establishment Credit). Banks are required to provide 20% of its total credit to enterprises with total assets of less than Rp. 600 million. Compared with definitions of other government departments and agencies this definition is very broad, and consequently, it includes many businesses which are not classified as small enterprises according to e.g. the Ministry of Finance, the Central Bank of Indonesia, and the Indonesia Chamber of Trade, Industry, and Commerce. The definition of the Ministry of Industry differs most from the one used by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The latter defines the size of the business by total personnel involved in the activities, and small scale industry comprises 5 - 1 9 workers, while cottage industries employ less than 5 workers. Our experiences in Central Java indicate that the large majority of medium scale enterprises (19 - 99 workers), and quite some large scale enterprises (more than 100 workers) have a total asset value which does not exceed Rp. 600 million. Consequently, according to the definition of the Ministry of Industry, they would be classified as small enterprises (industri kecil).
There is thus an enormous diversity among the industri kecil target group of the Ministry of Industry.
Central Java is the 'heartland' of SSCI in Indonesia. According to Hill (1990), in 1985 slightly more than 20 % of Indonesia's manufacturing employment (in full-time equivalents), in enterprises with more than 5 workers, was concentrated in this province. In 1985,53.3 % of employment in industry in Central Java was recorded in enterprises with a workforce between 5 - 4 9 workers, 8.2 % in enterprises with 50 - 199 workers, and 38.5 % in enterprises with more than 200 workers. It should of course be remembered that these data do not take account of manufacturing employment in Data - and definition problems have been extensively discussed by Hill (1992).
cottage enterprises, employing less than 5 workers. Hill (1990) has excluded them from the analysis since no reliable information was available on the full - time equivalente of cottage employment which is frequently carried out on an on/off basis during the day, season, or year.
Data from the Sensus Ekonomi Jawa Tengah 1986 (Economie Census of Central Java) reveal that almost 65 % of the industnal labour force in Central Java was employed in cottage industries, which are generally characterized by low labour productivity, low incomes and wages, and products of low quality. Female participation in cottage industries is significant 2. The marginal nature of cottage industries in Central Java is confirmed by the domination of low rewarding foodprocessing - and building materials industries within this size category 3. Small scale industries, according to the BPS definition, employ some 15 % of the workforce, and only in engineering is the percentage much higher than this average figure. Insight into developments of employment of distinct industnal subsectors and industnal size groups in Central Java since 1986 can only be obtained using data from the Ministry of Industry. Data suggest a steady growth of the small enterprise sector in Central Java, with growth of employment being higher than growth of the number of enterprises. This would imply that the average firm size in terms workers is growing 4.
SSCI in Central Java frequently cluster or group together; they form spatial groupings of small enterprises belonging to the same subsector. For example, -small scale roofing tiles enterprises group together. They use the same clay pits, get firewood from the same trader, and may sell to the same middlemen. In the case of the metal casting industry, clustering may be necessary to be able to share the use of very expensive machinery which cannot be economically managed by individual small firms. The small industry clusters - or Sentra Industri - are the focal point of the promotion programmes of the Ministry of Industry, as will be discussed further on in this paper.
Data from the Ministry of Industry suggest that in 1990, according to their definition of SSCI, about 46 % of all SSCI and 33 % of SSCI employment in Central Java is clustered.
Promotion of Small Scale and Cottage Industry in Indonesia