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«Titel der Dissertation An Application of Geographic Information System for Supporting Tourism Development along the Southeast Asian East-West ...»

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DISSERTATION

Titel der Dissertation

An Application of Geographic Information System for Supporting

Tourism Development along the Southeast Asian

East-West Economic Corridor

Verfasserin

Thitirat Panbamrungkij M.A.

angestrebter akademischer Grad

Doktorin der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer.nat.)

Wien, 2012

Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: A 091 452

Dissertationsgebiet lt. Studienblatt: Geographie

Betreuerin / Betreuer: Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wolfgang Kainz iii Acknowledgements The author’s PhD program is supported by the Technology Grant in Southeast Asia granted by the Austrian Academic Exchange Service (ÖAD) and the Final-year scholarship from Chulalongkorn University. These allow me to gain more knowledge and experience in the University of Vienna. It was such a great time in my life to stay and share attitudes and traditional cultures with generous people there.

I would like to express my great gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor Prof Dr Wolfgang Kainz. I would like to thank him for his advice and support to accomplish my doctoral dissertation. Also, I would like to express my deeply grateful acknowledgement to Prof Dr Karl Husa for encouraging and supervising me in both academic matters and living happily in Austria.

In addition, I would like to thank the staff at the Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna for their suggestions and warm welcome, and I am also grateful to the staff at the Department of Geography, Chulalongkorn University for their generous support and advice, and furthermore I owe thanks to Chulalongkorn University allowing me a full time educational leave during this PhD study.

This thesis would not have been completed without the help and advice of tourism authorities at the Department of Tourism, Thailand, and Provincial tourism institutes along the EWEC, Lao National Tourism Administration and Department of Tourism,Vietnam. I like to thank Mr.

Thaweesak Wongsricha, a Vice President of Chaiyaphum Provincial Office of Tourism and Sport, Mr. Apichat (Nick) at the Mukdahan Provincial Office of Tourism and Sport, Ms. Nuengruethai (Jub) at the Phitsanulok Provincial Office of Tourism and Sport, Mr. Voraratch (Ed) at the Tak Provincial Office of Tourism and Sport for their useful advice and tourism data. I am deeply grateful to Mr.

Vichai who works at The Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning and and Mr.

Nipon (Team Company) for supporting me with digital data and information of Indochina countries.

Besides, I would like to express my grateful acknowledgement to the Kurzfristige Auslandsstipendien (KWA) and Konferenzteilnahme grants provided by the University of Vienna for their financial supports during my fieldwork abroad and conference respectively.

I would like to express the great sincere acknowledgement to Mr. Khamla Sayavong, Head of Secretariat of GMS-Business Forum (GMS-BF), Lao PDR and Dr Jingjai Hanchanlash, Co-Chairman of GMS-Business Forum, Bangkok for their kind assistance in the EWEC information. I thank Ms.

Dang Hai Yen at the External Relations and Project Department, Vietnam Business Forum Magazine for her contribution of data on Vietnam and the dissertation questionnaires. I am also grateful to Mr.

iv Syha Pannavong, Vice President of Savannakhet Provincial Tourism Department who kindly provided me with up-to-date data and useful opinions toward the dissertation results.

Then, I would like to say many thanks to my colleagues (Jamal, Komaki, Alex, Kwanchai, Masoud, and Li Jie) for their kindness and some advice. I also would like to warmly thank my friends and people that I met during my stay in Vienna and fieldwork including my friend in Thailand.

–  –  –

Abstract The Southeast Asia (SEA) East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) is an outstanding land route stretching across four countries; Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR and Vietnam. It is also intersected by several corridors and consequently supports interchange nodes and linkage of main hubs in the SEA region. To boost the economic expansion and increase revenue among these EWEC nations, the tourism development on this route has been raised. The EWEC is located in the potential periphery region and have highly scenic values composed of natural and historical resources, traditional cultures and distinctive lifestyles. However many of these sites have not been a priority destination. Some of them are still lack of tourism facility services and attractiveness in terms of potential evaluation to attract visitors.

The present study aims firstly to evaluate tourist attractions’ potential along the EWEC region by applying GIS-based multiple models- analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) and network analysis. In addition, the study extends the previous results to investigate the influential factors affecting potential tourist attractions. Then, the areas lacking of facility services- mainly in the Savannakhet province, Lao PDR- are displayed and supported for expanding new possible locations of public services and investments of tourism industry. The GIS location-allocation analysis tool was used to support development of neglected tourism attractions including the weak peripheral areas throughout the main route.





Finally, the six EWEC tourist itinerary models are developed - En-route pattern, Radius Destination, Destination Area Loop, Möbius Loop, Open Jaw Itinerary and Complex Touring- to accommodate domestic and international traveling in this region. These models are implemented in ArcGIS Network Analyst for finding practically optimal routes in terms of distance and time saving.

The 26 prioritized tourist sites obtained from the first results are selected to run on the EWEC itinerary models.

–  –  –

Zusammenfassung Der Southeast Asia (SEA) East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) ist ein herausragender Landweg, der vier Länder umfasst: Myanmar, Thailand, Laos und Vietnam. Er wird von mehreren Korridoren gekreuzt und fungiert daher als Anschlussstelle und Verkehrskreuz in der SEA Region.

Um die wirtschaftliche Expansion zu steigern und den Umsatz unter den EWEC Nationen zu fördern, wurde die Entwicklung des Tourismus auf dieser Strecke verstärkt. Der EWEC befindet sich in der potenziellen Peripherie-Region und durchquert mehrere Länder. Diese besitzen sehr malerische Werte aus natürlichen und historischen Ressourcen, traditionellen Kulturen und einem unverwechselbaren Lebensstil. Aber viele dieser Orte waren bisher kein vorrangiges Tourismusziel.

Einigen von ihnen fehlt noch die nötige Infrastruktur, um Besucher anzuziehen.

Diese Arbeit zielt primär auf die Evaluierung des touristischen Attraktivitätspotenzials entlang des EWEC mittels eines GIS-basiertem analytischen Hierarchieprozesses (AHP), MultiKriterien Evaluierung (MCE) und Netzwerk-Analyse. Darüber hinaus erweitert die Studie die früheren Ergebnisse um die einflussreichen Faktoren, die die möglichen Touristenattraktionen untersuchen. Die Bereiche, denen es an der nötigen Infrastruktur fehlt, vor allem in der Provinz Savannakhet, Laos, werden aufgezeigt und für den Ausbau neuer möglicher Standorte der öffentlichen Dienstleistungen und Investitionen der Tourismusindustrie unterstützt. Das GIS Analysetool für Location-Allokation kann dabei die Entwicklung vernachlässigter Sehenswürdigkeiten einschließlich der schwach entwickelten peripheren Regionen entlang des Korridors unterstützen.

Schließlich wurden sechs Reiserouten-Modelle entwickelt für nationale und internationale Reisen in der EWEC Region: Fischgräten- Muster, Radius-Muster, Zielbereich-Schleife, MöbiusSchleife, Gabel-Reiseroute und komplexes Touring. Diese Modelle wurden im ArcGIS Network Analyst für die Suche nach praktischen optimalen Routen in Bezug auf Distanz und Zeit implementiert. Auf die 26 prioritären aus den ersten Ergebnissen gewonnenen Destinationen wurden die EWEC Reiseroute Modelle angewandt.

–  –  –

Contents Acknowledgements

Abstract

Zusammenfassung

Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Research questions

1.3 Objectives

1.4 Expected Results

1.5 Conceptual framework

1.6 Structure of Dissertation

Chapter 2: Concepts, Theories and Literature Review

2.1 Definition of tourism

2.1.1 Definition of tourism and travel

2.1.2 Definition of tourist

2.2 Geography of tourism

2.3 Tourism elements

2.3.1 Tourism generating zone

2.3.2 Tourism destination zone

2.3.3 Tourism transit zone and transport

x

2.4 Geography and tourist transport

2.4.1 Mode of tourist transport

2.4.2 Spatial interaction of tourist movement

2.5 Typology of tourism

2.6 Influential factors for tourism development

2.6.1 General influential factors

2.6.2. Place competition

2.7 Basic criteria for evaluating the tourist resources

2.7.1 Seasonality

2.7.2 Accessibility

2.7.3 Admission

2.7.4 Uniqueness/Importance

2.7.5 Popularity

2.7.6 Facilities

2.7.7 Activities

2.7.8 Endemic disease

2.8 Technical methods for the research analysis

2.8.1 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

2.8.2 Network analysis

2.8.3 ArcGIS Network Analyst

2.8.4 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

2.9 Model of travel itineraries

2.10 Related research review

2.11 Summary

Chapter 3: Study area

3.1 The EWEC background

–  –  –

3.3 National context of the EWEC

3.3.1 Myanmar

3.3.2 Thailand

3.3.3 Lao PDR

3.3.4 Vietnam

3.4 Socio-Economic context of the EWEC member nations

3.4.1 Socio-Economic situation

3.4.2 Infrastructure Progress along the EWEC

3.5 The tourist trend in EWEC members

3.6 The EWEC Tourist Attractions

3.7 Summary

Chapter 4: Methodology

4.1 Research Methodology and Design

4.2 Data Collection Approach

4.2.1 Data input

4.2.2 Data storage

4.3 Administration of Factors and Criteria

4.4 Operation of Database design and Management

4.4.1 Database arrangement

4.4.2 Data Handling and Manipulation

4.5 Data Analysis

4.5.1 Fundamental spatial analysis

4.5.2 Advanced spatial analysis

4.6 Application process

4.6.1 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) on GIS framework

4.6.2 Integrating Oppermann’s Multiple Destination Model and ArcGIS Network Analysis for finding the optimal tourist routes

4.6.3 Tourism development

4.7 Summary

xii Chapter 5: Development of Analytic Hierarchy Process under GIS Framework........ 135

5.1 Construction of Decision Hierarchy

5.2 Pairwise Comparison Process

5.2.1 Development of pairwise comparison matrix

5.2.2 Computation of Criterion Weights

5.2.3 Checking the consistency ratio

5.2.4 Development of Weights corresponding to decision hierarchy

5.3 Sets of rating scales for each criterion

5.4 Integration of AHP in a GIS framework

5.5 Linear scale transformation for standardization

5.6 The potential evaluation of tourist attractions

5.7 Summary

Chapter 6: Itinerary models for the East-West Economic Corridor

6.1 Elements of itinerary models

6.2 Oppermann’s multi-destination touring models

6.2 Development of the EWEC tourist itinerary models

6.3 Generating Guide maps with example scenarios of the EWEC tourist itinerary models

6.3.1 Fish Bone or En-route pattern

6.3.2 Radius Destination

6.3.3 Destination Area Loop

6.3.4 Möbius Loop

6.3.5 Open Jaw Loop

6.3.6 Complex Touring

–  –  –

Chapter 7: Investigation of weak points and offering guidelines for tourism investments and services

7.1 Investigation of the weaknesses

7.2 Guidelines for improving tourism potential

7.2.1 Support of the Attraction aspects

7.2.2 Support of the physical factor

7.3 Summary

Chapter 8: Conclusion and Discussion

8.1 General conclusion and discussion

8.2 Limitations of the Present Study

8.3 Directions for Future Investigation

References

Appendices

Appendix I: The detail of tourist sites along the EWEC members

Appendix II: Standard Assessment Manual for the Value and Uniqueness Factor..... 247 Appendix III: Declaration

–  –  –

List of Tables Table 2.1 The classification of the tourist attraction typologies

Table 2.2 The Major Council of Europe Cultural Routes

Table 3.1 Basic socio-economic and infrastructure information of EWEC nations

Table 3.2 The number of tourist arrivals in ASEAN countries during 2005 – 2009

Table 3.3 Total number of tourists arrivals classified by provinces in the EWEC region

Table 4.1 Key factors and definitions

Table 4.2 Examples of Vector and Raster representations of points, lines, and polygons.

.................95 Table 4.3 The numbers of error-resolving methods found in ArcGIS geodatabase topology...........104 Table 4.4 The GIS operators of the overlay command with different outcomes

Table 4.5 Fundamental AHP scale of absolute values 1 to 9 for comparisons

Table 4.6 Values for RI

Table 5.1 Comparison matrix of major objectives

Table 5.2 Comparison matrix in the Physical Aspect subsets

Table 5.3 Comparison matrix in the subsets of Attraction

Table 5.4 Comparison matrix in the Socio-Economic Aspect subsets

Table 5.5 The final computation of Pairwise Comparison matrices

Table 5.6 The final criterion weights used in the study



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