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«University of Wolverhampton Business School A Managers’ & Mentors Handbook On Mentoring 2009/10 © University of Wolverhampton. All rights ...»

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University of Wolverhampton Business School

A Managers’ & Mentors

Handbook On Mentoring


© University of Wolverhampton. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, photocopied, recorded, stored in a

retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of the copyright holder.

A Managers’ & Mentors Handbook on Mentoring 2009/10

Table of Contents

The History & Development of Mentoring

The Rise of Mentoring in Business

Definitions of Mentoring

Coaching and Mentoring

Some definitions of coaching;

More recent definitions of coaching (crossing over into the mentoring domain);

Similarities & differences?

Similarities & differences between key ‘helping’ interventions

The Benefits & Importance Of Mentoring

The benefits for the organisation;

The benefits for the protege/mentee;

The benefits for the mentor;

The benefits for the Line Manager;

What key knowledge, skills and attitudes should mentors have?

What should mentors do?

The 10 Mentor Competencies (Clutterbuck 2000)

7 types of mentor assistance, throughout the relationship (Shea2002)

Unhelpful Mentor Behaviours;

In short, what do MENTORS actually do?

Ideal characteristics when looking for a mentor;

What key knowledge, skills and attitudes should protégés/mentees have?

The Mentoring Process Lifecycle (Cranwell-Ward et al 2005)

The Mentoring Process

Beginning (getting started)

Middle (making the relationship a positive experience)

End (review, evaluation and closure)

Key roles and responsibilities of protégé/mentee, mentor, Line Manager and HR

The mentoring quadrangle (Clutterbuck 2004)

Key roles & responsibilities of mentor

Key roles & responsibilities of protégé/mentee

Key roles & responsibilities of Line Manager

Key roles & responsibilities of Co-ordinator/Scheme Manager

Matching mentors to mentees/protégés and preparing the mentee/protégé

Ideas for mentoring ground rules (adapted from Clutterbuck 2004)

A Managers’ & Mentors Handbook on Mentoring 2009/10 Key models/techniques to use during the mentoring sessions

CLEAR model

OSKAR model

The Story Telling model

The Grow Model

Hints And Tips; What To Do And What Not To Do

Developing and maintaining a PDP

How to use the PDP with your mentee/protégé

Some (reflective) questions that could be used whilst mentoring

Ethics and professional standards in mentoring



Boundary Management



Frequently Asked Questions And Answers

Suggested Additional Reading


Books & Journals

Helpful websites

The details in this guide may be amended to improve the operation of the scheme and to take into account changes in University Academic Regulations.

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The History & Development of Mentoring The classical history of mentoring can be traced back to Greek Mythology and Homer’s Odyssey.

The tale discusses the King Odysseus going to war and leaving his son, Telemachus, with his old friend Mentor. Mentor is an older, wiser, paternal figure acting as a trusted advisor; both caring and training his son by sharing his knowledge, experience and wisdom. The term ‘mentoring’ itself comes from a Greek word meaning ‘enduring’ and the term protégé can be taken from the French verb ‘protogere’, meaning ‘to protect’.

Over time Homer’s epic story has provided for alternative interpretations that bear on the way that the wider history of mentoring is conceived. For instance, feminist writers would contend that it was the Goddess Athena in the poem that represented the active mentoring role as she was a selfsacrificing and inspirational character and did not take the directive, more controlling role of Mentor.

(Ford 1999 as cited in Colley 2005.) Other authors suggest that the practice of mentoring dates from much earlier than Greek mythology, suggesting that there is increasing evidence that the gradual dominance of modern man over other related species was a consequence of passing down knowledge and wisdom from generation to generation (Shea 2002, Clutterbuck & Megginson 2004).

According to some academics, from Homer to the new millennium not much has changed in terms of mentoring (Gulam & Zulfiqar 1998) However, others would argue that despite the tendency to portray mentoring as an activity which has endured since Homeric times, for much of human history its forms have been submerged in other relationships (Gay & Stephenson 1996, Monaghan & Lunt 1992, Gulam & Zulfiqar 1998, Colley 2005.) Several different types of relationship that involved mentoring activity were based on important practices in certain cultures and historical eras, such as that of religious master-discipline, and the long established trade craftsman-apprenticeship professions (Gay & Stephenson 1996, who later added therapist-client.) Monaghan and Lunt (1992) agree that mentoring has its roots in the apprenticeship system. Through these relationships, mentoring has become chiefly characterised as a ‘parental type’ relationship between a more experienced person and a developing individual.

The Rise of Mentoring in Business

America claims that they discovered the phenomenon of mentoring as a business and career development tool particularly with reference to an article in the Harvard Business Review which claimed that professionals that had mentors reported higher levels of career satisfaction, earned more money at a younger age and were better educated (Roche 1979). Another article followed later that year, again discussing how ‘everyone who makes it, has a mentor’ (Collins & Scott 1979).

Despite questions over the validity of some of these studies, according to DeMarco (1993), this was the start of the business world recognising the value of linking the novice with the expert. Megginson & Clutterbuck (1995) agree that mentoring was an American import which they have helped to adapt A Managers’ & Mentors Handbook on Mentoring 2009/10 to the differing British cultural and business context. However, Strathern (1997) argues that such imports often consist in the unrecognised return of earlier imports!

According to Colley (2005), mentoring over the last 20 years has become an ‘in’ thing, particularly in the public sector supporting teaching, nursing and career guidance professions as well as in the private sector supporting the development of the new recruits, graduates and the potential of business managers. The steady growth of mentoring in the UK has also been supported by the New Labour Governments Social Exclusion Agenda and Welfare to Work policies, supporting the ‘at risk’ and ‘in need’ groups in our society, with a mentoring type approach.

Definitions of Mentoring

Mentoring has different definitions, mainly derived from evidence-based practice (not academic studies) and testimonials and opinions of HR practitioners and business consultants (Merriam 1983, Clutterbuck 2004). However, these focus more on the skills, functions and the activity of mentoring and less on the attitudes and emotional disposition required within the mentoring relationship.

Mentoring is a complex, social and psychological activity (Roberts 2000) and therefore attempts at a universal definition of mentoring have become a quagmire (Hagerty 1986). Mentoring is a slippery concept (Daloz 1986) and as such definitions vary with respect to differing dimensions such as hierarchy, intensity, duration and partnership (Gibson 2004) and according to national and cultural traditions.

In the US, mentoring tends to be considered as an interpersonal exchange (often career orientated) between a senior person and a junior, where the mentor will guide, teach, share their experience and wisdom (Zey 1984, Whitely et al 1992, MacLennan 1999, O’Brien 2003).

Here are some US definitions;

‘Mentoring is (the) process whereby one senior individual is available to a junior; to form a nonspecified developmental relationship; to seek information from; to regard as a role model; to guide the performer; to provide feedback and appraisal; to teach all the facts that will enable the individual to perform effectively in an organisation.’ MacLennan (1999) ‘A mentor is someone who passes on his or her experience and wisdom by coaching, counselling, guiding or partnering in every possible permutation, from volunteer tutor to angel investor.’ O’Brien (2003) Within the UK and Europe, a more general approach is evident which tends to describe mentoring as help by one person to another, helping others to achieve various personal outcomes, specifically those related to career success (Gibson 2004), with no mention of the power relationship, hierarchy or experience needed (Megginson & Clutterbuck 1995, Shea 1992, Parsloe & Wray 2004.)

–  –  –

Here are some UK/Europe definitions;

‘Mentoring is off-line help by one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, work or thinking.’ Megginson & Clutterbuck (1995) European Mentoring Centre ‘Mentors are people, who through their action and work, help others to achieve their potential.’ Shea (1992) ‘A process which supports learning and development, and thus performance improvements, either for an individual, team or business.’ Parsloe & Wray (2000) There is however, some consensus between continents that mentoring is a process that supports and encourages learning to happen (Parsloe & Wray 2004) and that mentoring is an intense and powerful one-on-one developmental relationship that leads to skills development (Wanberg et al 2003). When all this theory is stripped away, however, mentoring is still simply about a regular oneto-one meeting to support the learner in their desire to improve their personal situation or their business life. (Parsloe & Wray 2000) and as such it has some similarities to the other learning processes of coaching, guiding, counselling, tutoring, teaching etc.

–  –  –

Coaching and Mentoring Coaching and mentoring seem to be the two most compared and contrasted learning processes, with MacLennan (1999) declaring that ’the two roles are worlds apart and overlapping, depending on which dimensions they are compared.’ MacLennan (1999) describes coaching as a pulling out activity, where a coach is someone to learn with and mentoring as a putting in activity, where a mentor is someone available to learn from (also supported by Parsloe & Wray 2004.) The Coaching and Mentoring Network state that ‘coaching and mentoring are processes that enable both individuals and corporate clients to achieve their full potential’ (C&MN 2005) and they argue that the common thread that unites both types of service, are that they offer a vehicle for analysis, reflection, learning and action that ultimately enables the client to achieve success in one or more areas of their life or work.

There is also debate about whether coaches can mentor and mentors can coach, with Landsberg (1996) declaring that ‘mentoring is a role that includes coaching’ but that coaches do not mentor as they are hired to help with performance issues or specific skills and do not get involved in the softer people issues, career management issues etc (Tyler 2004.) However, this more traditional view of coaching and mentoring appears to be being overtaken, as now there are a variety of professionals in the marketplace describing themselves with titles like Business Coach, Executive Coach, Life Coach, Career Coach. This has allowed ‘coaching’ to spread over into some of the personal development areas, traditionally reserved for mentoring.

Some definitions of coaching;

More traditional views of (on-the-job/performance type) coaching;

‘Coaching is the process whereby one individual helps another; to unlock their natural ability; to perform, learn and achieve; to increase awareness of factors which determine performance; to increase their sense of self responsibility and ownership of their performance; to self-coach; to identify and remove internal barriers to achievement.’ MacLennan (1999) ‘Coaching is around specific performance issues or goals. Coaches are subject matter experts, such as learning a new computer program. Most coaching is short term; it typically doesn’t last over a year. In mentoring relationships, you’re usually talking about soft issues, people issues, and cultural issues. How to be a more effective communicator or motivating a high-performing team… A coach is a person you hire to help you with a specific issue or goals. A mentor is a person whom you cultivate a relationship, based on a mutual exchange of information and perspective.’ Tyler (2004)

–  –  –

More recent definitions of coaching (crossing over into the mentoring domain);

‘Generally speaking, what coaches do is anchor people to their own internal strengths; they inspire organizations to dream beyond their plans. They apply emotional and intellectual intelligence to the long haul of life and work…coaches must be very special people. First of all, they must be gifted in subjects or practices that followers want to gain expertise or endorsement in. They must be able to transcend their own ego needs so that they can help others in unselfish ways. Finally, coaches must be selected and trusted by clients as highly reliable learning resources.’ Hudson (1999) ‘Good coaches ask the tough questions, ask you to be self critical; and keep a check on how you’re dealing with those self criticisms’ Singleton (2003) All of the above definitions can be applied to mentoring in the workplace too again showing how the definitions and processes overlap depending on the context, individual needs etc.

Similarities & differences?

Mentoring is a role that includes coaching, but also embraces broader counselling and support, such as career counselling (Landsberg 1996). Having said that, it is very important as a mentor, to recognise your boundaries with the counselling arena. Here is a helpful guide to the similarities and differences within mentoring, coaching, counselling, training and managing.

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