«Energy Efficiency trends and policies in Poland ODYSSEE- MURE 2015 Monitoring EU and national energy efficiency targets Central Statistical Office ...»
Energy Efficiency trends and policies in Poland
ODYSSEE- MURE 2015
Monitoring EU and national energy efficiency targets
Central Statistical Office (GUS)
The Polish National Energy Conservation Agency (KAPE)
Warsaw, July 2015
Central Statistical Office
Al. Niepodległości 208, 00-925 Warsaw
Tel.: (48 22) 608 37 32 / Fax: (48 22) 608 38 82
Szymon Peryt Central Statistical Office Al. Niepodległości 208, 00-925 Warsaw Tel.: (48 22) 608 33 89 / Fax: (48 22) 608 38 82 E-Mail: email@example.com URL: http://www.stat.gov.pl Bartłomiej Asztemborski Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw Tel.: +48 22 6260910 / Fax: +48 22 6260911 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.kape.gov.pl Ryszard Wnuk The Polish National Energy Conservation Agency Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw Tel.: +48 22 6260910 / Fax: +48 22 6260911 E-Mail: email@example.com www.kape.gov.pl The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for the contents of this publication.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF BOXESSUMMARY
1. ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTEXTEconomic context 1.1.
Total Energy consumption and intensities 1.2.
Energy efficiency policy background 1.3.
1.3.1. Energy efficiency targets
2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGSEnergy efficiency trends 2.1.
Energy efficiency policies 2.2.
3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN TRANSPORTEnergy efficiency trends 3.1.
Energy efficiency policies 3.2.
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRYEnergy efficiency trends 4.1.
Energy efficiency policies 4.2.
5. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURE (ONLY IF RELEVANT)Energy efficiency trends 5.1.
Energy efficiency policies 5.2.
REFERENCES (IF ANY)
LIST OF FIGURESEx: Figure 1: Title of figures Figure 2 Dynamics of basic macroeconomic indicators (2000=100) Figure 3. Structure of Poland’s final energy consumption according to energy sources Figure 4 Structure of Poland’s final energy consumption according to sectors Figure 5 Structure of domestic household energy consumption according to end use Figure 6 Fuel consumption per car equivalent Figure 7 Energy consumption in transport Figure 8 Structure of industrial manufacturing’s share in final energy use Figure 9 Energy consumption indicators for high energy intensity industries Figure 10 Energy consumption indicators for low energy intensity industries List of tables Tab 1 Average annual rate of GDP energy consumption indicators (%/annum) Tab 2 Review of final energy savings targets Tab 3 Structure of domestic household energy consumption according to use (%) SUMMARY The basis of a sustainable energy policy is increasing the energy efficiency of energy generation, transmission and use. It is the legislation and action of national institutions. EU Directive 2012/27/EU from 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency requires EU member states to implement energy efficiency improving instruments which will facilitate achieving 20% final energy savings by 2020. For Poland this target is set at 96,4 Mtoe.
Poland actively participates in creating common energy policy and energy efficiency legislation, and applies them nationally, while protecting the interests of consumers, taking into account available energy resources and the technological conditions of energy generation and transmission. Poland pursues the indicative target set by Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and Council.
Up to 2013 Poland achieved the majority of the set energy savings.
Poland systematically improves the energy efficiency of the its entire economy, as well as in the case of most of its economic sectors. Over the past 10 years primary energy consumption decreased by more than 3% annually, and final energy consumption decreased by more than 2% per year. The fastest rate of energy efficiency improvement was observed in the industrial sector while improvement was slowest in the services sector. Increased economic activity requiring more energy and increasing energy efficiency had the biggest impact on decreasing energy consumption. Poland’s rate of improving energy efficiency and its energy consumption was above the EU average.
The necessity of meeting the requirements for monitoring the effects of activities aimed at improving energy efficiency, enabling international comparison, requires changes to the way statistical data is collected. This entails expanding the subjective and objective scopes of the research conducted and the availability of public data sources.
1. ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTEXT
Between 2002 and 2012 Poland’s GDP grew continuously, having grown 52% by the end of that period. The fastest rate of increase of added value was achieved in the industrial sector. The growth of individual consumption was slightly lower than the rate of GDP growth.
Figure 2 Dynamics of basic macroeconomic indicators (2000=100) A GDP growth rate higher than the growth rate of energy consumption has, with the exclusion of 2010, resulted in decreased primary and final GDP energy consumption (Fig. 8-9, Table 1). Between 2004 and 2006 energy consumption decreased by over 2% annually. Between 2007 and 2009 its rate exceeded 5% in terms of primary energy consumption, and closer to 4% in the case of final energy. In 2010-2013 the rate of improvement remained closer to 2003-2006 levels.
Tab 1 Annual rate of changes in GDP energy indicators (%/annually)
The primary to final energy consumption index oscillated between close to 60% and up to 65%. It reached its highest in 2012 with 64,4%, and in 2013 decreased to 62,6%. It is chiefly affected by the efficiency of energy transformation (higher efficiency - higher index) and the rate of growth of electrical energy consumption (higher rate - lower index)
TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND INTENSITIES1.2.
Between 2003 and 2013 the total primary energy consumption increased from 91 Mtoe to almost 98 Mtoe (0,7%/annually). Consumption decreased in 2009 and between 2012 and 2013.
During the same period the average rate of final energy consumption increased by 1,4%. In absolute values this means an increase from 54 Mtoe to over 62 Mtoe. As seen above consumption decreased in 2009 and between 2012 and 2013. After considering different weather conditions, so accounting for climatic corrections, between 2003 and 2013 the rate of growth was 1,4%.
Traditionally the Polish energy industry was focused on using Poland’s own resources, which also affected the types of fuel used in other industries in the primary economic sector. Black and brown coal are the main source of primary energy. For final energy consumption the main source are liquid fuels, which in 2003 and 2013 shared 30% of the market. The share of coal (both black and brown) remained steadily at 19% between 2003 and 2013. Similarly the share of gas did not change at 15%.
Other energy sources saw a significant increase reaching a 10% share in final energy consumption.
The share of heat was identical to that of other energy sources (10%), and in fact decreased. The share of electrical energy increased by 1% (17%).
Figure 3. Poland’s structure of final energy consumption according to energy sources Between 2004 and 2013 the share of transport in final energy consumption increased the most from 19% to 25%.
Increased consumption was also noted in the service sector (13% in 2013). The industrial, domestic households and agriculture sectors saw a decrease in their overall share in final energy consumption. However domestic households remained the biggest consumer of final energy with 33%.
Figure 4 Poland’s structure of final energy consumption according to sectors
ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICY BACKGROUND1.3.
The documents defining energy efficiency policy in Poland are:
● Poland’s Energy Policy up to 2030 ;
● National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) 3 (1, 2, 3 from 2007, 2012 and 2014 respectively), required by the 2006/32/WE Directive.
The Law on Energy Efficiency (Dz. U. Nr 94, poz. 551) was passed in 2011 with the aim of developing mechanisms stimulating improvements in energy efficiency. Chiefly among other things it introduced a legal requirement of acquiring an appropriate number of white energy efficiency certificates for energy companies trading electric energy, heat or natural gas to end users connected to the network in Poland.
The 2014 NEEAP 3 on energy efficiency reviews the achieved improvements in energy efficiency, introduces targets for 2020 and updates the actions and resources already completed, as well as those planned for the future.
1.3.1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY TARGETS The main objective of Poland’s energy efficiency policy is achieving a 13,6 Mtoe decrease in primary energy consumption, which fulfils article 3 of act 1 of Directive 2012/27/UE. During times of economic growth this involves the improvement of energy efficiency. Analyses conducted for the purpose of the “Polish energy policy up to 2030” indicate that limiting primary energy consumption will be the result of a wide range of already implemented projects, as well as ambitious actions improving energy efficiency, as stated in the country’s energy policy.
As to final energy savings between 2014 and 2020, they are to be achieved using a standard program. Energy savings equal to at least 1,5% of average annual energy sales to end user must be achieved by energy suppliers and energy retailers, beginning from 1 January 2014 up to 31 December 2020.
The table below shows the targets for final energy savings for 2020 as well as those achieved in 2010 and those expected by 2016.
Table 2 Review of final energy saving targets
2010 1,02 2% 4,24 8,3 2016 4,59 9% 7,09 13,9 Planned savings can also be achieved by implementing horizontal measures as well as actions tailored individually for each of the considered economic sectors - industry, transport, construction.
This section of the report deals only with horizontal measures. Other measures will be enumerated in appropriate subsections.
Obligatory energy efficiency certificates(white certificates) ● Entities trading in energy, heat or natural gas are required to obtain and produce Energy Efficiency Certificates, or pay a substitute fee to the President of the Energy Regulatory Office. The objective of the program is supporting actions improving the energy efficiency of the economy, increasing the energy saving for end users and personal use appliances, and finally, reducing the losses of electricity, heat and gas in transmission.
The white certificate scheme supports energy saving measures. The certificates are issued by the President of the Energy Regulatory Office. Property rights from white certificates are transferable and are part of the commodity and regulated markets.
Intelligent Energy Networks (ISE) - Priority Programme of the National Fund for ● Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOŚiGW) The aim of the NFOŚiGW programme is financing: educational and promotional actions, implementation of intelligent measurement and information networks, balancing and optimizing energy use, implementation of distributed renewable energy sources, energy storage, intelligent energy efficient lighting, as well as the development of information systems and specification standards.
● Operational programme Infrastructure and the Environment 2014-2020 (Investment Priority 4.iv.) – Development and implementation of intelligent distribution systems for average and low voltage networks.
The Ministry of Economy programme is planned to begin in 2015 and end by 31 December 2023.
The programme will be managed by the Ministry of Infrastructure. Its aim will be intensifying the development of renewable energy sources and increasing energy efficiency through optimizing and rationalizing the use of electricity consequently meeting the targets of the EU climate and energy policies.
The programme consists of supporting the construction of proof-of-concept intelligent networks. It will also include projects concerning modernization and development of low and average voltage distribution networks connected to a smart grid, which would allow connecting renewable energy sources (RES) and limiting network losses. Financing will go to intelligent measurement devices and monitoring systems as well as intelligent network management systems.
Informational and educational campaigns ● This has been a Ministry of Economy programme since 2012. Its aim is promoting public behaviour contributing to energy savings through informational and educational campaigns aimed at end users and domestic households. The campaigns are also meant to increase social awareness on energy efficiency issues, financing, low-energy buildings and other issues concerning energy use and the environment.
Nationwide campaigns which are part of the programme promote using energy efficiency improving measures, including the implementation of innovative technologies by public sector entities.
The informational and educational campaigns include publishing handbooks and guidebooks on the available resources and their use, available on Ministry and affiliate websites.
The main theme is energy use. The Ministry of Economy is tasked with monitoring the campaigns and estimating the resulting energy savings by 2016, as well as preparing and delivering a report to the European Commission.
● Cogeneration certificates for electricity (Red certificates);
● Green certificates scheme;
● Requirement to purchase electricity from RES and cogeneration;
● NFOŚiGW activities;
● Regional operational programmes for 2014-2020.