«Page 1 Introduction Pictogram is an application that progressively teaches children the use of charts for representing data. Pictures are dragged ...»
Pictogram is an application that progressively teaches children the use of
charts for representing data. Pictures are dragged onto stacks and may either
be displayed vertically or horizontally. The chart can be switched to a block
chart where the pictures are replaced as more
blocks of different
colours. Finally the blocks can be joined into one long bar to create the
familiar bar chart.
• Wide variety of picture sets for creating pictograms.
• Easy point and drop method for constructing charts.
• All of the charts can be exported as an TIFF file or be copied to the clipboard.
• Pictogram recognises when colours are used as labels and will colour the charts appropriately.
System Requirements A Macintosh computer running Mac OS X 10.3 or later, a minimum of 256 MB of memory is recommended.
The Pictogram application requires around 7.0 MB of disc space.
User Requirements To be generally familiar with using the Mac OS X operating system, launching applications, opening and saving files.
All trademarks are acknowledged.
This document is copyright © Kudlian Software Limited 2006 Published: 8 June 2006 Page 2 Installation and Registration
• Insert the CD ROM into the CD/DVD ROM drive.
• Run the Install Pictogram package and follow the instructions in the installer.
Once the installation is complete you will need to register the software.
• Ensure you are logged onto the computer as an ‘Administrator’.
• Run the Pictogram application from the Applications folder on your computer.
• Choose Register Software… from the Pictogram application menu.
• Enter your details and the serial number which can be found on the licence card included in the software pack.
• If you have correctly entered your serial number then the Register button should become enabled. Click on the Register button, you should only need to do this once.
Page 3 Getting Started To Run the Pictogram Application
• Double click on the Pictogram application which can be found in the Applications folder.
The main Pictogram window will appear on screen and the Picture Groups
sheet will open as shown:
First we need to load a set of pictures into Pictogram. To do this:
• Select a picture group from the Picture Groups list that appears by default when you start a new pictogram. The pictures contained in the group will be previewed in the panel to the right of the Picture Groups list.
• When you have selected the group you require, click on the Add button.
By default the chart title will be set to the same name as the picture group. If you wish you can change the chart title later.
Creating a Chart Adding Pictures to the Pictogram
• Either click on the ‘plus button’ next to the picture to add that item to the chart, or
• Drag the picture you wish to add to the chart onto the adjacent row on the pictogram chart area, the cursor will display a small plus sign when the picture is over the correct area.
By default there is only room for ten pictures in each row or column. This can be changed in Pictogram’s preferences. Please refer to the Preferences section for further details on changing the maximum number of pictures displayed.
To Remove a Picture
• Either click on the ‘minus button’ next to the picture to remove that item from the chart, or
If you wish to add more pictures when the columns are full then the children should be encouraged to think about how this can be achieved. We cannot just make the screen bigger, and even if could use a bigger screen, we would still have the same problem once the columns become full again. We could make the pictures smaller but the problem with this is that they may become too small to be clearly identifiable. Even if we made the pictures half as big you would only be able to have twice as many pictures which may still not be enough. So we have to adopt an alternative strategy.
The way we solve this problem is to use another type of chart. Let’s switch to the Single Pictogram chart.
The Single Picture Pictogram When we switch to any of the other types of chart, one of the immediate changes is the form of data entry. Instead of dragging pictures on or off the chart, we can type in the required number of items directly or use the small ‘plus/minus buttons’ to increase or decrease the items’ count. We can also rename any of the items and add additional items to the chart.
Another addition to the single picture pictogram and the block chart is the
The scale box shows how many units a single picture represents. As more items are added, the chart will automatically re-scale so that one picture can represent 2 items. If you increase the number of items further eventually one picture will represent 10 items and then later 20 items. You cannot use Pictogram to represent more than 200 items.
Page 6 Starting with The Single Picture Pictogram If you wish you can start with the single picture pictogram. To do this, when
the application starts:
• Dismiss the picture groups sheet by clicking on the Cancel button.
The chart type then defaults to a bar chart.
• Click on the Single Pictogram chart type on the toolbar.
The default single picture is a red block. You can load a picture of your choice into the scale box.
Changing the Single Picture You can change the picture that is used to represent the items in this chart.
• Drag an appropriate picture file from the Finder to the image well in the scale box. If Pictogram can load the picture the cursor will change to display a small ‘plus’ when the cursor is over the image well. This picture will then be used in the chart.
We have supplied some pictures that work particularly well with this type of chart. For example, Happy is a smiley face, Yes is a simple tick. An example you might like to use, is the Ticket file, which could be used to count the number of tickets sold each night at a theatre. You label each of the fields;
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday… Then enter the number of tickets sold on each night.
Page 7 Using the Block Chart
To change the chart type to a block chart, either:
• Click on the Block Chart button on the toolbar or
• Choose the Chart Block Chart from the menu bar.
The chart will then be displayed as shown below:
The purpose of the block chart is to replace the pictures with abstract coloured blocks. The children must now refer to the labels by the side of the axis in order to understand what each coloured block represents.
Note: If the item you are counting has a colour in its label, for example Blue Eyes, then Pictogram will automatically use the colour blue for that item in the chart.
More than Ten Items?
With the block chart, you can add more than the preset maximum number of items to the chart. However, in order to do this Pictogram will have to re-scale the chart, this means that one block represents more than one item. By switching between the block and bar chart with more than ten items you can explain to the children the necessity of re-scaling a chart as the number of items being counted increases.
Note: Once you have more than the maximum number of items allowed in a pictogram then you cannot switch back to the multi-pictured pictogram.
Changing the Chart Title
• To change the chart title click in the text field labelled Chart Title and enter the title you require. Press the RETURN key to confirm the change.
Horizontal and Vertical Charts Any of the chart types can be displayed either horizontally or vertically.
• Choose either Chart Horizontal or Chart Vertical from the menu bar. A tick indicates the current orientation.
Count Labels Any of the chart types can display count labels for each item.
• Choose Chart Count Labels from the menu bar. A tick indicates the current setting. The count for each item is displayed at the end of the bar or row of pictures.
Gridlines Any of the chart types can display gridlines.
• Click on the Bar Chart button on the toolbar, or
• Choose the item Chart Bar Chart from the menu bar.
The chart will then be displayed as shown below:
In the bar chart we have effectively joined all the blocks together.
• Click on the Pie Chart button on the toolbar, or
• Choose the item Chart Pie Chart fro the menu bar.
An example of a pie chart is shown below:
Pie charts are not really about counting items as with the previous chart types, but rather about looking at proportion. If you don’t wish the children to see the pie chart, then you can remove the Pie Chart button from the toolbar.
See the section on Customising The Toolbar for more details.
Page 11 Saving the Chart Pictogram can save a data file which contains information on the chart and the pictures used in the pictogram. This file can be loaded back into Pictogram later and the chart can be changed further.
If the file has not yet been saved, i.e. it does not yet have a file name, or you choose the item File Save As… then the Save As sheet will drop down from
the main window as shown:
• The text in the text field labelled Save As will display a default file name for your data.
• Enter the name you wish to give your file in the text field then either press the RETURN key or click on the Save button.
The file will be saved in the folder that was displayed in the save as sheet. If you wish you can change the folder using the standard navigation buttons.
Loading Chart Data The easiest way to open an existing Pictogram file is to locate it in the Finder and double click on it. Alternatively you can,
Printing In order to print you must have a printer driver configured for your particular printer.
To print the chart either:
• Choose the item File Print… from the menu bar or
• Click on the Print button the toolbar.
The print sheet will drop down from the main window:
• To print the chart click on the Print button.
More Advanced Features Using the Clipboard (Copy and Paste) Pictogram makes use of the clipboard for copying and pasting the chart as a picture file. This is really useful if you have created a chart in pictogram and then want to paste it into a word processor or DTP application. To do this we
use the Copy Chart to Clipboard item in the Chart menu, as shown below:
To copy your chart to the clipboard:
• Choose Chart Copy Chart to Clipboard from the menu bar.
Preferences Pictogram allows you to configure the appearance of the charts and some
other settings too. To open the preferences window:
• Choose Pictogram Preferences… from the menu bar.
Setting Different Fonts You can configure different fonts and font sizes used in the charts.
• To do this click on the Set… button for either the Title Font or the Body Font and use the Font dialogue box to choose a new font.
Maximum Items Displayed Per Screen This setting allows you to configure the maximum number of items that are displayed in the charts. By default this is set to 10. You can change this to any value between 10 and 20. The higher the setting the smaller the pictures will appear on screen but it does give you the option to display more pictures before the charts need to be re-scaled.
Page 14 Default Chart Settings These settings allow you to configure how the charts will appear by default when a new chart is created. Changing these settings do not affect any charts that are currently displayed or opened from a file.
Automatically Check For Updates When this setting is checked, Pictogram will check to see if a new version is available for download from the Kudlian Soft web site. If there is a newer version then you will have the option to download it.
Revert to Default Settings Click this button to restore all the preferences back to their default settings.
Customising the Toolbar
You can customise the toolbar in Pictogram to remove some of the predefined items or to rearrange them in a different order. To do this:
• Choose View Customize Toolbar… from the menu bar. A sheet will drop
down from the current Pictogram window:
This allows you to remove and add tools to the toolbar. You can also add separator bars and spaces.
If after using this feature you wish to restore all the tools back to their default state, then drag the default set up to the toolbar.
Using the Finder, open the root folder of the hard disc, and then these successive folders, Library/Application Support/Pictogram/Picture Groups.
Here you will find the folders that make up the picture groups. To add a new group simply create a new folder with the name you wish to give to the group.
Then, inside your new folder, add any picture files that you wish to add to that group. It’s as easy as that! Pictogram supports most graphic file formats, including JPEG, TIFF, GIF and PDF. The name of the picture will be taken from the name of the file, so you may wish to rename the file appropriately, the file’s extension is ignored.
Next time you start a new pictogram, in the Pictures Group sheet you will see your new picture group in the list. These picture groups will be accessible by every user on the computer.