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INCREASING MARKET-ORIENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CAC
INCREASING MARKET-ORIENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CAC
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center is an international notfor-profit organization committed to alleviating poverty and
malnutrition through research, development, and training.
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
P.O. Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan 74199, ROC tel: +886-6-583-7801 fax: +886-6-583-0009 e-mail: email@example.com web: www.avrdc.org © 2006 AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center ISBN 92-9058-150-6 Editorial assistance: Kitty Hong Cover design: Chen Ming-che Source of photos: Thomas Lumpkin, George Kuo, Ravza Mavlyanova, Kitty Hong, Bakhytbek Amirov, and Serik Jantassov Source of map: www.cia.gov with modifications by Chen Ming-che Corresponding authors Dr. George Kuo, Director for International Cooperation, AVRDC at firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Ravza Mavlyanova, Regional Coordinator for Central Asia and the Caucasus, AVRDC at email@example.com Citation Kuo, C.G., R.F. Mavlyanova, and T.J. Kalb (eds.). 2006. Increasing market-oriented vegetable production in Central Asia and the Caucasus through collaborative research and development. AVRDC publication number 06-679. AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Taiwan. 250 pp.
CONTENTS I Contents Foreword
Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus
Summary and Recommendations
Country Reports Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Armenia
Rubik Shakhasisyan, Ashot Oganesyan, and Agwan Saakyan Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Armenia
Galust G. Aslanyan and Arevik B. Lokyan Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Azerbaijan
Alisoltan G. Babaev Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Azerbaijan
Lalazar Sadikhova Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Georgia
Jemal Makharadze and Guram Gurgenidze Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Georgia
Alexander Saralidze, Nato Kakabadze, Len Nozadze, Zurab Jinjikhadze, and Tinatin Kuprashvilli Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Kazakhstan
Serik B. Kenenbaev Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Kazakhstan
Temirjan E. Aytbaev and Bakhytbek U. Amirov Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Kyrgyzstan
Akbaraly Abdivasiev Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Kyrgyzstan
Asanbek Ajibekov, Sharshenbek Ismoilov, and Yuriy Levchenko Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Tajikistan
Tursun Akhmedov Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Tajikistan
Tolib Nabiev and Tursun Akhmedov
INCREASING MARKET-ORIENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CACII Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Turkmenistan................. 81 Yuri Arestov Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Turkmenistan
Geldy Goshaev, Akmammet Aklyev, and Orazmirad Palvanmuradov Economic and Social Context of the Vegetable System in Uzbekistan
Odil Olimjanov and Khasan Mamarasulov Research and Development of the Vegetable System in Uzbekistan
Batir Azimov Overview Paper Setting Research and Development Priorities for Market-oriented Vegetable Production Systems in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Mubarik Ali, Ravza Mavlyanova, Mei-huey Wu, Umar Farooq, Li-ju Lin, and C. George Kuo Resource Papers AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center’s Role in the Conservation of Biodiversity
L.M. Engle Conservation, Exchange and Use of Indigenous Vegetable Resources in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Ravza Mavlyanova Opportunities for Developing the Market-oriented Vegetable Production System in Central Asia and the Caucasus
W.H. Schnitzler Development of Safe Plant Protection Strategy
Gwo-Chen Li and Sue-Sun Wong Development of Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Production in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Bakhtiyar Baghirov Post-harvest Processing of Vegetables in Central Asia and the Caucasus............. 183 Kurmanzhan Osmonalieva Assessment of the Vegetable Seed System in Central Asia and the Caucasus....... 188 Vladimir I. Zuev
CONTENTS IIIOpportunities for Developing the Seed Sector of the Market-oriented Vegetable System in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Dae-Geun Oh APSA and the Seed Industry in Asia
Jagveer Sindhu Reciprocal Exchange and Testing of Vegetable Varieties in Uzbekistan and the USA
T. Orton, D. Zaurov, E. Remmers, P. Ballister-Howells, K. Buriev, V. Zuev, R. Mavlyanova, and R. Hakimov Opportunities for Research Collaboration with Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops
D. Schwarz, R. Grosch, H.-P. Kläring, A. Krumbein, and E. George Recent Developments of the Vegetable Production System in Turkey
Suat Yilmaz, Ahmet F. Firat, Nedim Mutlu, and Nurten Surmeli List of Participants
Vegetable Research and Production
Vegetables at the Market
INCREASING MARKET-ORIENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CACII FOREWORD 1 Foreword Central Asia and the Caucasus (CAC) has been encountering many challenges after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Transition from large collective and state farms to small privately owned farms mean that the entire vegetable system, including research and development (R&D), in these CAC countries must be reorganized in order to be responsive and effective in the economic transition. As well, national agricultural leaders’ mentalities, objectives, procedures, processes, and programs of the vegetable systems that were centrally planned during the former Soviet Union must be re-oriented to those that serve national needs and a demand-driven economy. In this connection, the impressive national agricultural research system (NARS) that was cloistered in the former Soviet Union needs to evolve and extend its partnership with a wider world.
From a different angle, the CAC region as a whole provides diverse agro-ecological conditions for complementary vegetable production by different CAC countries. Also the region is the center of origin for many important vegetable crops, including onion, spinach, carrot and melons. Collection, improvement and utilization of indigenous genetic resources will have a great impact on the overall development in the region. Furthermore, globalization, trade liberalization and the increased demand for diverse vegetables in European Union, West Asia, South Asia, East Asia and North Africa are creating new market opportunities for vegetable producers and processors in the CAC region.
With the above as a background, AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center has initiated targeted programs in the CAC region. AVRDC is pleased to join the CGIAR Collaborative Research Program for Sustainable Agriculture Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Through this alliance, we look forward to working closely with the CGIAR, NARS, development organizations and interested donors to improve the livelihoods of people in the CAC region. And to strengthen this alliance, we have opened an office in Tashkent in collaboration with the CGIAR-CAC Program (www.icarda.org/ cac). Also AVRDC has sponsored a workshop for vegetable scientists in Central Asia in 2003 (www.avrdc.org/pdf/cac.pdf).
Given the constraints in resources in each of the CAC countries, mutual advantage and benefit can be gained in acting in concert, in sharing and in collaboration with each other within and outside the region in trying to advance the production, consumption and marketing of vegetables, and the development of improved varieties and commercial seed production in the region. Under this moving spirit and philosophy, AVRDC was proud to organize the workshop on “Improved Income and Nutrition in Central Asia and the Caucasus through Enhanced Market- and Trade-oriented Vegetable Systems Research and Development” in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 25–27 April 2005, in collaboration with the Program Facilitation Unit of the CGIAR-CAC Program. The presentations at the workshop encompassed a range of issues from the socio-economic context of vegetable systems, natural resources for vegetable growing, production and consumption of vegetables, and the status of research and development efforts in CAC countries. Combined with the other resource papers, this proceedings presents a broad picture of the
INCREASING MARKET-ORIENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CACvegetable sector and collaborative research opportunities in CAC. Given the shortage of published information on the vegetable sector in the eight CAC republics, especially in English, this publication will serve as a useful benchmark document for some time to come. I hope the publication will be of interest not only to policymakers and researchers in the vegetable system, but also to anyone with an interest in the overall development of the CAC region.
Thomas A. Lumpkin Director General AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 3Acknowledgements AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center and the Program Facilitation Unit (PFU) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Collaborative Research Program for Sustainable Agriculture Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus are grateful to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ), the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China (Taiwan) for providing the financial resources to hold this important workshop, and to publish and distribute this proceedings. Special thanks go to the Honorable Abdushukur Khonazarov, Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Water Management, the Republic of Uzbekistan, for officially opening the workshop.
Moreover, both AVRDC and PFU are grateful to all participants for sharing their expertise in presentations and candid opinions in deliberations. Their contributions made this workshop successful.
Special thanks go to Ms. Kitty Hong of AVRDC headquarters for handling the administrative and financial matters of the workshop, and Ms. Sumbula Mukhammadieva of AVRDC Regional Office for Central Asia and the Caucasus, and the PFU secretariat staff for their secretarial support of the workshop.
Thanks are extended to the authors of the papers in this document as well as the researchers who have provided valuable survey data. We also recognize Ms. Elena Pashkova and Mr. Artur Ambartsumyan for their help in the translation of Russian papers into English, and English papers into Russian. A word of thanks is due to staff of AVRDC’s Communication and Training Office and International Cooperation Office for their various aspects of support in the workshop and publication of this proceedings, especially Ms. Kitty Hong, who spent considerable efforts on improving papers translated from Russian and typesetting of the Russian version of this proceedings, and Mr.
Chen Ming-che, who put the final touches to the map and photo galleries and for designing the cover.
INCREASING MARKET-ORIENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CAC
Summary and Recommendations Ravza Mavlyanova and George Kuo The purposes of this regional consultation workshop, held on 25–27 April 2005 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, were to 1) review recent developments in the vegetable system, particularly as regards to efforts that enhance its sustainability in Central Asia and the Caucasus (CAC); 2) gain a comprehensive understanding of priorities in vegetable systems research and development (R&D) within each CAC country and in the region as a whole;
3) suggest strategies on the priorities and mechanisms for collaborative vegetable R&D efforts that will mutually benefit all member countries of CAC; and 4) propose R&D subject areas and action plans that will merit the support of the national governments and the donor community. It was an attempt to band together the national agricultural research system (NARS) in the CAC region into a cohesive and singularly effective group which addresses the strategic R&D needs on vegetables of the region as a whole. AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center and the Program Facilitation Unit (PFU) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Collaborative Research (CGIAR) Program for Sustainable Agriculture Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus organized this workshop.
The workshop brought together policymakers, research managers, leading experts in vegetable systems, and key stakeholders from all eight CAC countries. Representatives of international, regional and nongovernmental organizations, as well as the private industry also shared their perspectives on the potential of vegetable systems to enhance the well being of CAC countries and their peoples. In total, there were 74 participants from 61 organizations based in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Germany, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Philippines, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Sixty-one of the 74 participants were male.
This workshop presented country reports on the social and economic context of vegetable systems, and the status of vegetable R&D in the CAC national programs. Reports on indigenous genetic resources, seed production, integrated pest management, and postharvest technology of vegetables were also presented to provide an adequate background from a regional perspective. In addition, a number of resource papers touched on the substantive issues and collaborative research opportunities that will affect the development of the vegetable system in the CAC region. Moreover, a paper aggregated and analyzed the individual country trends of the vegetable sector to provide an overview of dynamics of vegetables in the CAC region based on the data collected through a survey conducted with a pre-designed questionnaire from policymakers and key researchers in each CAC country. Together, these papers set the tone for the working groups to deliberate on collaborative vegetable R&D in the CAC region and priorities for collaborative efforts, and paved the way for developing appropriate recommendations and endorsing in principle the proposed collaborative network.