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«Complete Guide to Home Canning Guide 6 Preparing and Canning Fermented Foods and Pickled Vegetables 6-2 Guide 6 Preparing and Canning Fermented Foods ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Complete Guide to

Home Canning

Guide 6

Preparing and Canning

Fermented Foods and

Pickled Vegetables

6-2

Guide 6

Preparing and Canning Fermented Foods and Pickled Vegetables

Table of Contents

Section

Selection of fresh cucumbers

Low-temperature pasteurization treatment

Suitable containers, covers, and weights for fermenting foods

Salts used in pickling

Fermented foods

Dill pickles

Sauerkraut

Cucumber Pickles

Bread-and-butter pickles

Quick fresh-pack dill pickles

Sweet gherkin pickles

14-day sweet pickles

Quick sweet pickles

Other Vegetable Pickles

Pickled asparagus

Pickled dilled beans

Pickled three-bean salad

Fermented Foods and Pickled Vegetables Pickled beets

Pickled carrots

Pickled baby carrots

Pickled cauliflower or Brussels sprouts

Chayote and jicama slaw

Bread-and-butter pickled jicama

Marinated whole mushrooms

Pickled dilled okra

Pickled pearl onions

Marinated peppers

Pickled bell peppers

Pickled hot peppers

Pickled jalapeño pepper rings

Pickled yellow pepper rings

Pickled sweet green tomatoes

Pickled mixed vegetables

Pickled bread-and-butter zucchini

6-3 Pickled Vegetable Relishes

Chayote and pear relish

Piccalilli

Pickle relish

Pickled corn relish

Pickled green tomato relish

Pickled horseradish sauce

Pickled pepper-onion relish

Spicy jicama relish

Tangy tomatillo relish

Pickled Foods for Special Diets

No sugar added pickled beets

No sugar added sweet pickle cucumber slices

Reduced-sodium sliced dill pickles

Reduced-sodium sliced sweet pickles

6-4 Selection of fresh cucumbers Quantity: An average of 14 pounds is needed per canner load of 7 quarts; an average of 9 pounds is needed per canner load of 9 pints. A bushel weighs 48 pounds and yields 16 to 24 quarts—an average of 2 pounds per quart.

Quality: Select firm cucumbers of the appropriate size: about 1-1/2 inches for gherkins and 4 inches for dills. Use odd-shaped and more mature cucumbers for relishes and bread-and-butter style pickles.

Low-temperature pasteurization treatment The following treatment results in a better product texture but must be carefully managed to avoid possible spoilage. Place jars in a canner filled half way with warm (120° to 140°F) water.

Then, add hot water to a level 1 inch above jars. Heat the water enough to maintain 180° to 185°F water temperature for 30 minutes. Check with a candy or jelly thermometer to be certain that the water temperature is at least 180°F during the entire 30 minutes. Temperatures higher than 185°F may cause unnecessary softening of pickles. Caution: Use only when recipe indicates.

Cabbage and cucumbers must be kept 1 to 2 inches under brine while fermenting. After adding prepared vegetables and brine, insert a suitably sized dinner plate or glass pie plate inside the fermentation container. The plate must be slightly smaller than the container opening, yet large enough to cover most of the shredded cabbage or cucumbers. To keep the plate under the brine, weight it down with 2 to 3 sealed quart jars filled with water. Covering the container opening with a clean, heavy bath towel helps to prevent contamination from insects and molds while the vegetables are fermenting. Fine quality fermented vegetables are also obtained when the plate is weighted down with a very large clean, plastic bag filled with 3 quarts of water containing 6-6 4-1/2 tablespoons of canning or pickling salt. Be sure to seal the plastic bag. Freezer bags sold for packaging turkeys are suitable for use with 5-gallon containers.

The fermentation container, plate, and jars must be washed in hot sudsy water, and rinsed well with very hot water before use.

Salts used in pickling Use of canning or pickling salt is recommended. Fermented and nonfermented pickles may be safely made using either iodized or noniodized table salt. However, noncaking materials added to table salts may make the brine cloudy. Flake salt varies in density and is not recommended for use.

Reduced-sodium salts, for example mixtures of sodium and potassium chloride, may be used in quick pickle recipes, as indicated in this guide. The pickles may, however, have a slightly different taste than expected. Caution: Use of reduced-sodium salt in fermented pickle recipes is not recommended.

Fermented foods

DILL PICKLES

Use the following quantities for each gallon capacity of your container.

4 lbs of 4-inch pickling cucumbers 2 tbsp dill seed or 4 to 5 heads fresh or dry dill weed 1/2 cup salt

–  –  –

Procedure: Wash cucumbers. Cut 1/16-inch slice off blossom end and discard. Leave 1/4-inch of stem attached. Place half of dill and spices on bottom of a clean, suitable container (see page 6-6).

Add cucumbers, remaining dill, and spices. Dissolve salt in vinegar and water and pour over cucumbers. Add suitable cover and weight. Store where temperature is between 70° and 75°F for about 3 to 4 weeks while fermenting. Temperatures of 55° to 65°F are acceptable, but the fermentation will take 5 to 6 weeks. Avoid temperatures above 80°F, or pickles will become too soft during fermentation. Fermenting pickles cure slowly. Check the container several times a week and promptly remove surface scum or mold. Caution: If the pickles become soft, slimy, or develop a disagreeable odor, discard them. Fully fermented pickles may be stored in the original container for about 4 to 6 months, provided they are refrigerated and surface scum and molds are removed regularly. Canning fully fermented pickles is a better way to store them. To can them, pour the brine into a pan, heat slowly to a boil, and simmer 5 minutes. Filter brine through paper coffee filters to reduce cloudiness, if desired. Fill hot jar with pickles and hot brine, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process as below, or use the low temperature pasteurization treatment described on page 6-5.





–  –  –

25 lbs cabbage 3/4 cup canning or pickling salt Sauerkraut Quality: For the best sauerkraut, use firm heads of fresh cabbage. Shred cabbage and start kraut between 24 and 48 hours after harvest.

–  –  –

If you weigh the cabbage down with a brine-filled bag, do not disturb the crock until normal fermentation is completed (when bubbling ceases). If you use jars as weight, you will have to check the kraut two to three times each week and remove scum if it forms. Fully fermented kraut

may be kept tightly covered in the refrigerator for several months or it may be canned as follows:

Hot pack—Bring kraut and liquid slowly to a boil in a large kettle, stirring frequently. Remove from heat and fill hot jars rather firmly with kraut and juices, leaving 1/2-inch headspace.

Raw pack—Fill hot jars firmly with kraut and cover with juices, leaving 1/2-inch headspace.

Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process.

6-8 Recommended�process�time�for�Sauerkraut�in�a�boiling-water�canner

–  –  –

Cucumber pickles

BREAD-AND-BUTTER PICKLES

6 lbs of 4- to 5-inch pickling cucumbers 8 cups thinly sliced onions (about 3 pounds) 1/2 cup canning or pickling salt 4 cups vinegar (5%) 4-1/2 cups sugar 2 tbsp mustard seed 1-1/2 tbsp celery seed 1 tbsp ground turmeric 1 cup pickling lime (optional) for use in variation below for making firmer pickles Yield: About 8 pints

–  –  –

Combine remaining ingredients in a large pot. Boil 10 minutes. Drain and add cucumbers and onions and slowly reheat to boiling. Fill hot pint jars with slices and cooking syrup, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process as below or use low-temperature pasteurization treatment described on page 6-5.

Variation for firmer pickles: Wash cucumbers. Cut 1/16-inch off blossom end and discard. Cut into 3/16-inch slices. Mix 1 cup pickling lime and 1/2 cup salt to 1 gallon water in a 2- to 3-gallon crock or enamelware container. Caution: Avoid inhaling lime dust while mixing the lime-water solution. Soak cucumber slices in lime water for 12 to 24 hours, stirring occasionally. Remove from lime solution, rinse, and resoak 1 hour in fresh cold water. Repeat the rinsing and soaking steps two more times. Handle carefully, as slices will be brittle. Drain well. With this variation, the onions are not limed.

Storage: After processing and cooling, jars should be stored 4 to 5 weeks to develop ideal flavor.

Variation: Squash bread-and-butter pickles. Substitute slender (1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter) zucchini or yellow summer squash for cucumbers. Do not use the liming variation.

–  –  –

6-10 2 cinnamon sticks 1/2 tsp fennel (optional) 2 tsp vanilla (optional) Yield: About 6 to 7 pints Procedure: Wash cucumbers. Cut 1/16-inch slice off blossom end and discard, but leave 1/4-inch of stem attached. Place cucumbers in large container and cover with boiling water. Six to 8 hours later, and again on the second day, drain and cover with 6 quarts of fresh boiling water containing 1/4-cup salt. On the third day, drain and prick cucumbers with a table fork. Combine and bring to a boil 3 cups vinegar, 3 cups sugar, turmeric, and spices. Pour over cucumbers. Six to 8 hours later, drain and save the pickling syrup. Add another 2 cups each of sugar and vinegar and reheat to boil. Pour over pickles. On the fourth day, drain and save syrup. Add another 2 cups sugar and 1 cup vinegar. Heat to boiling and pour over pickles. Drain and save pickling syrup 6 to 8 hours later. Add 1 cup sugar and 2 tsp vanilla and heat to boiling. Fill hot sterile pint jars (see Sweet�Gherkin�Pickles page 1-14) with pickles and cover with hot syrup, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process as below, or use the low temperature pasteurization treatment described on page 6-5.

Recommended�process�time�for�Sweet�Gherkin�Pickles�in�a�boiling-water�canner

–  –  –

4 lbs of 2- to 5-inch pickling cucumbers (If 14-Day�Sweet�Pickles packed whole, use cucumbers of uniform size) 3/4 cup canning or pickling salt (Separated—1/4 cup on each of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th days) 2 tsp celery seed 2 tbsp mixed pickling spices 5-1/2 cups sugar 4 cups vinegar (5%) Recommended�process�time�for�14-Day�Sweet�Pickles�in�a�boiling-water�canner

–  –  –

Procedure: Wash cucumbers. Cut 1/16-inch off blossom end and discard, but leave 1/4 inch of stem attached. Slice or cut in strips, if desired. Place in bowl and sprinkle with 1/3 cup salt. Cover with 2 inches of crushed or cubed ice. Refrigerate 3 to 4 hours. Add more ice as needed. Drain well.

Combine sugar, vinegar, celery seed, allspice, and mustard seed in 6-quart kettle. Heat to boiling.

Hot pack—Add cucumbers and heat slowly until vinegar solution returns to boil. Stir occasionally to make sure mixture heats evenly. Fill sterile jars, leaving 1/2-inch headspace.

Raw pack—Fill hot jars, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Add hot pickling syrup, leaving 1/2-inch headspace.

6-12 Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process as below or use the low temperature pasteurization treatment described on page 6-5.

Variation for firmer pickles: Wash cucumbers. Cut 1/1 6-inch off blossom end and discard, but Quick�Sweet�Pickles leave 1/4-inch of stem attached. Slice or strip cucumbers. Mix 1 cup pickling lime and 1/2 cup salt to 1 gallon water in a 2- to 3-gallon crock or enamelware container. Caution: Avoid inhaling lime dust while mixing the lime-water solution. Soak cucumber slices or strips in lime water solution for 12 to 24 hours, stirring occasionally. Remove from lime solution and rinse and resoak 1 hour in fresh cold water. Repeat the rinsing and resoaking two more times. Handle carefully because slices or strips will be brittle. Drain well.

Recommended�process�time�for�Quick�Sweet�Pickles�in�a�boiling-water�canner

–  –  –

Storage: After processing and cooling, jars should be stored 4 to 5 weeks to develop ideal flavor.

Variation: Add 2 slices of raw whole onion to each jar before filling with cucumbers.

–  –  –

Procedure: Wash asparagus well, but gently, under running water. Cut stems from the bottom to leave spears with tips that fit into the canning jar, leaving a little more than 1/2-inch headspace.

Peel and wash garlic cloves. Place a garlic clove at the bottom of each jar, and tightly pack asparagus into hot jars with the blunt ends down. In an 8-quart saucepot, combine water, vinegar, hot peppers (optional), salt and dill seed. Bring to a boil. Place one hot pepper (if used) in each jar over asparagus spears. Pour boiling hot pickling brine over spears, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process.

–  –  –

Procedure: Wash and trim ends from beans and cut to 4-inch lengths. In each hot sterile pint jar Pickled�Dilled�Beans (see page 1-14),place 1 to 2 dill heads and, if desired, 1 clove of garlic. Place whole beans upright in jars, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Trim beans to ensure proper fit, if necessary. Combine salt, vinegar, water, and pepper flakes (if desired). Bring to a boil. Add hot solution to beans, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace if needed. Wipe rims of jars with a dampened clean paper towel. Adjust lids and process.

Recommended�process�time�for�Pickled�Dilled�Beans�in�a�boiling-water�canner

–  –  –



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