«A Comprehensive Scoping and Assessment Study of Climate Smart Agriculture Policies in Malawi 30 April, 2014 By the DEPARTMENT OF AGRIBUSINESS ...»
A Comprehensive Scoping and Assessment Study of Climate
Smart Agriculture Policies in Malawi
30 April, 2014
DEPARTMENT OF AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT
LILONGWE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
P.O. BOX 219
TEL.: +265 11 192 3208
CONTACT PERSON: JOSEPHDZANJA, PhD.
Tel: +265 11 192 3208 (office) +265 88 153 8312/99 187 3932 (Mobile) Email:firstname.lastname@example.org Commissioned by The Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe CSA study team is grateful to different stakeholders that have willingly given data and information on the scoping study on CSA in Malawi. This study is the work of FANRPAN and their support during the study process in acknowledged. The following people specifically deserve a mention; Dr Sepo Hachingota and Talentus Mthuzi of FANRPAN who coordinated the study activities; Mr Tamani Nkhono, the National Director of CISANET who helped organise the National Dialogue.
We also thank all the organisations represented at the Stakeholder National Dialogue in Malawi for their suggestions. Lastly, we would like to thank FANRPAN for providing financial resources for this scoping study.
LIST OF ACRONYMSASWAp Agriculture Sector Wide Approach CAADP Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme CSA Climate Smart Agriculture FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation FANRPAN Food Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network GHG Greenhouse Gases MGD Millennium Development Goals NASFAM National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi IWRM Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) New Partnership for Africa’s Development NEPAD NWRA National Water Resources Authority UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis report details the results of a comprehensive scoping and assessment study on Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) in Malawi. The study was commissioned by the Food Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN). FANRPAN is implementing a programme that comprises a number of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) projects. The projects seek to (a) generate CSA research-based evidence and address knowledge gaps; (b) strengthen CSA institutional capacity and support capacity building of young professional on CSA and food security research; (c) support advocacy campaigns for the development and implementation of responsive CSA policies; and (d) support the uptake of CSA best practices.
The overall objective of the FANRPAN CSA policy programme is to increase agricultural productivity and strengthen the resilience of vulnerable smallholder farmers to the impact of climate change. The FANRPAN CSA programme currently covers 16 countries: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
It was against this background that the comprehensive scoping and assessment study was
commissioned. The objectives of the study were to:
1. Conduct comprehensive reviews of the existing CSA policy context in each study country;
2. Analyse gaps in the existing policy frameworks;
3. Identify relevant policy recommendations;
4. Develop and share policy recommendations (briefs) at national and regional levels.
Two study approaches were used in the study, including review of relevant documents and key-informant interviews.
Many issues were analysed in the study, such as the concept of climate-smart agriculture, the key stakeholders dealing with the issues of CSA, the specific technologies that various stakeholders are implementing, policies, gender issues etc. These analyses and the review of various relevant documents have led the study team to draw a number of lessons as outlined
in the section below:
1. Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture are the main CSA technologies being promoted and implemented in Malawi
2. Many policies in Malawi do recognise the negative effects of climate change, though specific issues (such as recommended technologies) of climate-smart agriculture are not implicitly indicated.
3. Many stakeholders such as... are involved in the promotion of CSA in Malawi and they work in collaboration with the Government of Malawi, especially the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security.
4. Farmers through farmers organisations like NASFAM have embraced CSA technologies
5. Research into the socio-economic impact of CSA is still limited in Malawi. There is therefore a lot of research scope that individual researchers and institutions can undertake.
6. Women are highly involved in CSA as focus crops (soybeans and ground nuts) are less labour intensive; hence suitable for them.
7. There are no clear guidelines to govern the implementation of CSA in Malawi The aforementioned lessons present both the successes and existing challenges in the program areas. Further scrutiny into the challenges has elicited some important
recommendations as follows:
1. Bringing together a group of sector professionals to operate as a "Think Tank" to advance a common vision of the issues related to scaling-up CSA programmes;
2. Initiating specific "projects" (e.g. action research, workshops) involving a wider group of stakeholders to improve our understanding of the scaling up;
3. Engaging in advocacy activities to support, promote scaling up community management. Advocacy will be principally aimed at: a) policy makers and b) the wider community of sector professionals.
4. The Malawian government and all relevant stakeholders should use CSA to adapt to the vagaries of climate change, but clearly women’s participation must be central to any of these efforts.
5. Malawian policies related to agriculture should be reviewed to include specific recommendations and strategies how CSA will be implemented.
6. More research is required to quantify the socio-economic benefits of CSA in Malawi.
Evidence based approach in the promotion of CSA will encourage and motivate various stakeholders (including farmers) to take action in favour of CSA.
7. Land tenure regulations at individual and community level are a critical success factor to the adoption of CSA, providing incentive for investment in farm resources. In this way, these regulations should be formulated in such a way as to provide security in land ownership so that rural people can be motivated to invest in CSA.
8. CSA can and will be extensively adopted if local institutions are strengthened, such as agricultural input and output markets, extension services and micro-finance.
LIST OF ACRONYMS
1.1. Country overview of land, agriculture, and food security issues
1.2. Scope and Methodology
2. Farming systems and CSA technologies and practices
2.1 Background on climate-smart agriculture
2.2 Climate-Smart Agriculture Practices and Technologies
2.3 CSA Programmes and Projects
2.4 Past and Present CSA
2.5 Constraints in Implementing CSA in Malawi
2.5.1. Land Pressure
2.5.2 Conventional land preparation practices
2.5.3 Scarcity of Resources
2.5.4. Lack of clear guidelines for a specific CSA practices
2.5.5 Lack of adequate financing
2.5.6 Summary of Opportunities and Constraints
3. CSA Policy framework in Malawi
3.1 Background Context
3.2 Key Policies and Institutions Relevant to CSA in Malawi
3.2.1 National Climate Change Policy
3.2.2 Agriculture and Food Security Policy (2006)
3.2.3 National Land Policy
3.2.4 Livestock Policy (2006)
3.2.5 National Environmental Policy
3.2.6 National Water Policy (2007)
3.2.7 Fisheries Policy (2001)/Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (1997). 21 3.2.8 Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (2003).............. 22 3.2.9 Malawi National Forest Policy (1996)
3.3 Key Institutions
3.4 CSA Practices and Policies, Gender and Social Equity
4. Conclusions and recommendations
Annex 1: List of Stakeholders in Malawi
Annex 2: Comprehensive Policy Analysis
1. Introduction This report details the results of a comprehensive scoping and assessment study on ClimateSmart Agriculture (CSA) in Malawi. The Food Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) is implementing a programme that comprises a number of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) projects. The projects seek to (a) generate CSA researchbased evidence and address knowledge gaps; (b) strengthen CSA institutional capacity and support capacity building of young professional on CSA and food security research; (c) support advocacy campaigns for the development and implementation of responsive CSA policies; and (d) support the uptake of CSA best practices.
The overall objective of the FANRPAN CSA policy programme is to increase agricultural productivity and strengthen the resilience of vulnerable smallholder farmers to the impact of climate change. Specifically, under this programme FANRPAN sought to
a) Conduct comprehensive reviews of the existing CSA policy context;
b) Analyse gaps in the existing policy frameworks;
c) Identify relevant policy recommendations;
d) Develop and share policy recommendations (briefs) at national and regional levels.
The FANRPAN CSA programme currently covers 16 countries: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
1.1. Country overview of land, agriculture, and food security issues Malawi is a land-locked country located in south-east Africa lying along a sector of the East African Rift Valley between latitudes 90and 180S, and longitudes 330and 360E. The country’s territorial area is slightly over 118,000 square kilometres, of which 61% is arable land, 20% is taken up by the lakes and the remaining 19% is covered by forest reserves, human settlement and public infrastructure.
The agriculture sector is the backbone of Malawi’s economy. Agriculture generates over a third of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 90 percent of its export revenues (CIA 2012). While tobacco, sugar, coffee and tea are Malawi’s primary cash crops, corn is the primary staple of domestic consumption. More than 90% of the people, mainly comprising resource-poor rural communities, are predominantly engaged in subsistence rain-fed agriculture, 60% of whom are food insecure on a year-round-basis. The food security situation that has been exacerbated by increasing poverty and population pressures on a limited land resource base, low economic productivity of the land, labour and capital, and extreme weather events due to climate variability, and low capacity to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change. More than 40 percent of the smallholder farms cultivate fewer than 0.5 hectares on average, much of which is over-cultivated and under corn production (WFP 2010).Agricultural expansion to marginal lands and deforestation, inadequate knowledge and skills in the productive use and management of land and natural resources, inadequate access to land and credit, poor health services, and gender inequalities have led to female- and children-headed households, the elderly and women to be the most vulnerable.
1.2. Scope and Methodology The CSA scoping studies addressed five key issues. First the studies addressed what is known on CSA and what gaps exist based on national, regional and international CSA literature.
Second the studies looked at the current CSA related policies of the country (including environmental policies, water policies, agricultural policies, land policies and development policies). Third the studies identified current on-going CSA development and research programme initiatives in the study country. Fourth national CSA institutional arrangements and how different stakeholders are involved were identified. Lastly the performance of current CSA policies and their major gaps were analysed.
To cover the five key issues outlined above, the study employed two major methods of data collection: (a) a review of relevant documents and (b) key informant interviews / consultations.
A number of relevant documents were reviewed in the course of this study. The documents included research documents, national policies (especially Malawi Government Policies) and project documents sourced from various organisations. The organisations that were contacted are listed in the Appendix 1 of this report. Fifteen key-informant interviews were also conducted. The key informants included some researchers skilled in CSA, Government officials, members of the Civil Societies and NGOs who have been involved in CSA in Malawi.
Furthermore, a national dialogue on CSA was organised by FANRPAN on 26 February, 2014 in Lilongwe City where the preliminary findings of this report were presented. The workshop attracted the participation several organisations involved in CSA. The delegates provided their comments to the report and provided more insights to the study team which helped to improve the report. Comments were also solicited from anonymous reviewers identified by FANRPAN and all these comments were considered in the revision of the report.
2. Farming systems and CSA technologies and practices